Why is it double important for Diabetic People to follow Precautions in Corona Times?
Why it is double important for Diabetic People to follow Precautions?
In the times of COVID-19, chronic disease makes people difficult and vulnerable, one of which is Diabetes. Diabetes in itself was bad enough, now putting you more at risk. When a person is diabetic, his immune system is already compromised, making it harder to fight the virus and likely leading to a longer recovery period. Then the second thing to keep in mind is, the virus may thrive in an environment of elevated blood glucose.
How Immunity is compromised in Diabetic population?
Why is Diabetes at high risk when Corona Virus is a Lung Disease?
As diabetic we are at higher risk than others because, diabetes is a complicated disease with different types. In 2019, 463 million adults globally were diabetic. High blood sugar can make people more susceptible to other illness including Corona Virus. Managing diabetes is not as simple as taking medicines, assuming the immune system is same, stress and exercise also plays a role. Corona virus is different in diabetic because of high blood sugar. The problem that diabetic face primarily the worst outcomes. High blood sugar supress the immune system, like we see wound healing is slow, illness is very common in diabetics. The antibodies that usually attack foreign bodies don’t work that usual, don’t work as chronically elevated blood sugar. Chronic inflammatory state is there, ultimately the response to infection is slow, making it difficult for people to recover. The biggest takeaway for any diabetic is to stay away as much as possible from the disease. Isolate – distance – take precautions , stay safe.
The immune system is comprised of two subcategories: innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity, the first line of defence, is activated when a pathogen initially presents itself. This portion of immunity is inherited at birth and is not specific in its mechanism of defence. In addition, it serves the overall immune system by alerting specific cells of pathogen invasion to activate the adaptive immune system.
Adaptive immunity is a very specific aspect of a properly functioning immune system that provides protection against previous infections experienced by the host. These responses are mediated by lymphocytes, which consist of natural killer (NK) cells, B cells and T cells. Vaccinations and exposure to pathogens benefit the adaptive immune system by establishing immunologic memory. In the event of another attack by the same foreign organism, the adaptive immune system is able to provide a more efficient response.
Patients with uncontrolled diabetes are considered immunosuppressed due to the negative effects of elevated blood sugars on the immune system. Hyperglycemia impairs overall immunity through different mechanisms. Chronic hyperglycemia in diabetes patients can lead to acidosis, which limits the activity of the immune system. The effects of these changes are reversible upon treatment of acidosis and hyperglycemia.
High glucose levels limit and deregulate neutrophil synthesis, which is essential in the immune system to attack a foreign object. Cytosolic calcium in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) increases in the presence of hyperglycemia and is inversely proportional to the occurrence of phagocytosis in patients with type II diabetes. High levels of cytosolic calcium inhibit the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is essential for phagocytosis. The ability of PMN leukocytes to mobilize to the site of infection and stimulate of apoptosis is negatively impacted as well.
Take away – is there an increased risk of getting infected. Risk of complication
Diabetic patients are not any higher risk of infection. On the other hand the risk of complications is very high. That is the reason, we need to take extra care due to this
Whether we need to change the medication. Not really, if your diabetes is in control and if your blood sugar is reasonable under control then no need to. if there is any infection then hormonal change increases the blood sugar levels also. SO if you are having any such issues, seek immediate help.
If you are diabetic and feel sick, don’t self treat, take professional help.
Hyperglycemia causes other undesirable changes in the function of the immune system such as decreased complement response, leukocyte adherence and bactericidal activity.
Inflammatory response occurs as a result of immune response to high blood glucose levels as well as the presence of inflammatory mediators produced by adipocytes and macrophages in fat tissue. This low and chronic inflammation leads to damage of the pancreatic beta cells and insufficient insulin production, which results in hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia in diabetes is thought to cause dysfunction of the immune response, which results in failure to control the spread of invading pathogens in diabetic subjects. Therefore, diabetic subjects are known to more susceptible to infections.
Antihypertension drugs and COVID -19
Molecular study of coronaviruses, which showed that this group of viruses uses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to target cells on the epithelium of the lungs, intestine, kidneys, and blood vessels.
ACE2 is upregulated by antagonists along with the renin-angiotensin system, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), which are common antihypertensive drugs used to treat patients with hypertension and diabetes. Whether an association exists between increased ACE2 expression and risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 or severity of COVID-19 is currently not understood.
Prepare for COVID-19
People dependent on insulin should store it for 90 days stock, to avoid going out or left out in case of a shortage of medicine. Apart from Insulin, people with diabetes should prepare for COVID-19 the same way everyone else is: paying special attention to washing hands thoroughly, disinfecting surfaces, practicing social distancing, and self-isolating as much as possible.
Some best practices to follow for people with diabetes in preventing an infection are –
- Take control of your blood glucose –This could help in reducing the risk of infection and also the severity of disease.
- Eat healthy – Good Nutrition and high protein intake is important, especially in times of pandemic.
- Work on your Immunity – Take some herbs like Tulsi, Licorice, Ginger, Triphala to increase your immunity, a strong body can give good fight to virus and recovery time is also less. SHOP HERE
- Exercise – is good for immunity, but avoid group activities or going to gym, do regular exercise at home like yoga, mild safe walks etc.
- Flu and pneumonia vaccinations – Pneumonia vaccine especially may decrease the chances of secondary bacterial pneumonia after respiratory viral infection.
- Literature suggests maintaining blood glucose levels below 200 mg/dL. Glucose levels above 200 mg/dL are expected to pose an increased risk of infections. To assist in the maintenance of proper perfusion through blood vessels, adherence to standard of care is vital. Standard of care includes maintaining HbA1c < 7%, blood pressure <130/80 mmHg, proper control of cholesterol levels and vaccination use (i.e. annual influenza vaccination).
Supplements with Immune Boosting potential
- Vitamin D
- Vitamin C
Steps to take care of If you think you have COVID-19
If you are diabetic and think you have been exposed to new corona virus, first thing is to call your doctor and local health authorities, then quarantine yourself either in hospital or at home.
If you are at home, have plenty of fluids, healthy diabetic diet and track your glucose and ketones levels. You should not go in hyper or hypo glycemia.
Da Ravinto’s Herbal Infusion KO – IMUNITA is a good way to improve your immunity at home. Presence of Licorice, Ashwangdha, Lemon Grass, Basil and other ingredients make it scientifically proven immunity booster. Read more details in the product section of Ko-Imunita.
You should take extra precautions and care, but if you do show symptoms of COVID-19, then treat it like a bad flu, have extra supplies of medicines but don’t self-medicate. Take medicines and rest in medical supervision. Most people recover from COVID-19, still the best treatment is prevention.
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- Case Western Reserve University. “High blood sugar of diabetes can cause immune system malfunction, triggering infection: Scientists show how sugar-derived molecules can weaken infection-fighting antimicrobial beta-defensin peptides.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 6 August 2015. sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/08/150806151354.htm
- https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanres/article/PIIS2213-2600(20)30116-8/fulltext ( ACE inhibitor increase the risk of COVID19 )
- https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanres/article/PIIS2213-2600(20)30158-2/fulltext ( Antihypertensive drugs and risk of COVID-19)
- https://jvi.asm.org/content/94/7/e00127-20.abstract (Receptors recognized by Novel Coronavirus)